Historical Epistemology of the Final Theory Program
The group’s study of the final theory program will be guided and structured by three main investigations, one dealing with the historically singular nature of the final theory program itself, the other two dealing with distinct opposition movements that emerged in the course of the second half of the 20th century:
(1) Post-Empirical Physics: It is often remarked that the current search for a final theory, in particular in the form of string theory, has severed all contacts with experiment. The group will pursue the question not only of how this came to be, but, even more importantly, of how this was even possible. It will investigate how the major knowledge systems established in the early 20th century, general relativity and quantum theory, were used as a reservoir for the construction of new theories, free from empirical input, and why and how physicists pursued this path.
(2) Mathematical Physics: The presence of the final theory program has enabled the practice of postponing the discussion of foundational difficulties in contemporary theoretical physics to the future, when the final theory will be available to answer those questions. The group will investigate how this practice arose and its implications for the methodology and standards of theoretical physics. It will further investigate how the opposition to this practice led to the establishment of new subdisciplines of physics, dealing explicitly with the unresolved conceptual (foundations of quantum mechanics) and formal (mathematical physics, in particular axiomatic quantum field theory) difficulties of contemporary theoretical physics.
(3) Anti-Reductionist Physics: The increasingly apparent possibility that the sought-after final theory is unattainable, combined with the large amount of resources needed for the pursuit of such a theory, led to a different from of opposition to the final theory program, recruiting itself mainly from other subfields of physics that are closer to experiment and application, most notably condensed matter physics. It calls into question the whole notion of fundamental physics, replacing it with an anti-reductionist set of essentially independent descriptions of the physical world at different scales. The group will investigate the emergence and rise of this position in the 1970s, studying the complex interplay between science policy and conceptual arguments. It will further investigate the mutual transfer of concepts and methods between condensed matter physics and the final theory program, in the face of ideological opposition and the increasingly combative struggle for funding.